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Objective:Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are responsible for more than 80% of dementia cases.These two conditions share common risk factors including hypertension.Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is strongly associated with both hypertension and cognitive impairment.In this review,we identify the pathophysiological changes in CSVD that are caused by hypertension and further explore the relationship between CSVD and cognitive impairment.Data Sources:We searched and scanned the PubMed database for recently published literatures up to December 2017.We used the keywords of"hypertension","cerebral small vessel disease","white matter lesions","enlarged perivascular spaces","lacunar infarcts","cerebral microbleeds",and "cognitive impairment" in the database of PubMed.Study Selection:Articles were obtained and reviewed to analyze the hypertension-induced pathophysiological changes that occur in CSVD and the correlation between CSVD and cognitive impairment.Results:In recent years,studies have demonstrated that hypertension-related changes (e.g.,small vascular lesions,inflammatory reactions,hypoperfusion,oxidative stress,damage to autoregulatory processes and the blood-brain barrier,and cerebral amyloid angiopathy) can occur over time in cerebral small vessels,potentially leading to lower cognitive function when blood pressure (BP) control is poor or lacking.Both isolated and co-occurrent CSVD can lead to cognitive deterioration,and this effect may be attributable to a dysfunction in either the cholinergic system or the functionality of cortical and subcortical tracts.Conclusions:We explore the currently available evidence about the hypertensive vasculopathy and inflammatory changes that occur in CSVD.Both are vital prognostic indicators of the development of cognitive impairment.Future studies should be performed to validate the relationship between BP levels and CSVD progression and between the numbers,volumes,and anatomical locations of CSVD and cognitive impairment.

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来源:中华医学杂志(英文版) 2018 年 131卷 05 期

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